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    Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) in Ethiopia seeks to create competent and self-reliant citizens to contribute to the economic and social development of the country, thus improving the livelihoods of all Ethiopians and sustainably reducing poverty.



    1.      Introduction.. 7

    1.1.         The Context. 7

    1.2.         The Policy Framework. 8

    1.3.         Current State of TVET Development. 9

    2.      Objectives of the National TVET Strategy.. 12

    3.      Guiding Principles of the National TVET System... 13

    4.      Conceptual Principles of the TVET System... 15

    4.1.         Making TVET Institutions Centers of Technology Capability Accumulation & Transfer. 15

    4.2.         Aiming at a Comprehensive and Integrated TVET System... 16

    4.3.         Stakeholders’ Involvement. 18

    4.4.         Public Private Partnership. 19

    4.5.         Outcome-Based Approach. 21

    4.6.         Decentralization. 22

    4.7.         Efficiency in the TVET System... 23

    5.      Institution Building for Outcome-Based TVET.. 24

    5.1.         Preparation of Occupational Standards. 25

    5.2.         Occupational Assessment and Certification. 27

    5.3.         TVET Qualifications Framework. 28

    6.      Developing Flexible TVET Delivery.. 29

    6.1.         Modularization as a Principle of TVET-Delivery. 29

    6.2.         Cooperative TVET Delivery and Apprenticeship Training. 30

    6.3.         TVET for Self-Employment. 31

    6.4.         Introducing ICT to the TVET System... 32

    6.5.         Vocational Guidance and Counselling. 32

    7.      Building Capacities in TVET Institutions. 33

    7.1.         Strengthening Public TVET Institutions. 33

    7.2.         Strengthening Private TVET Institutions. 34

    7.3.         Curriculum Development and Preparation of Training, Teaching and Learning Materials. 35

    8.      Accreditation of TVET Institutions. 36

    9.      Human Resource Development for TVET Staff. 37

    9.1.         Initial and Further Training of TVET Teachers and Instructors. 37

    9.2.         Human Resource Development for TVET Management. 39

    9.3.         Creating Conducive Work Environment for TVET Staff 39

    10.        Financing of TVET.. 40

    11.        TVET Research, Monitoring and Evaluation.. 41

    11.1.      Building Research Capacities. 41

    11.2.      Labour Market Monitoring and -Forecasting. 43

    11.3.      Management Information System... 44

    11.4.      Monitoring and Evaluation of TVET. 44

    12.        Governance and Management of the TVET System... 44

    13.        Awareness Creation about TVET.. 50

    14.        Managing International Cooperation.. 51





     List of Acronyms and Abbreviations


    CSTC               Community Skills Training Centre

    ESDP               Education Sector Development Programme

    ETB                  Ethiopian Birr

    ETQF               Ethiopian TVET Qualifications Framework

    ICT                   Information and Communication Technology

    MSE                 Micro and Small Enterprise

    NGO                 Non-governmental organisation

    PASDEP          Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty

    QMS                Quality Management System

    ReMSEDA        Regional Medium and Small Enterprise Development Agency

    TMIS                TVET Management Information System

    TVET                Technical and Vocational Education and Training



    1.       Introduction

    1.0.1 This National TVET Strategy replaces an older version adopted in 2002. It reflects an important paradigm shift of recent years which places quality and relevance of TVET as its priority. Global experience has shown that the mere expansion of TVET does not solve the problems of unemployment and low productivity of the economy. TVET has to respond to the competence needs of the labour market and create a competent, motivated and adaptable workforce capable of driving economic growth and development.

    1.0.2 This strategy was developed with the involvement of a broad range of stakeholders from the private and public sectors. It defines the major principles of the intended TVET development in the coming years. The main thrust of the strategy is that TVET development relies on an outcome-based system and dedicated and trusting cooperation among stakeholders.

    1.1.         The Context

    1.1.1 Ethiopia is among the poorest countries in the world. Some 31 million of her people live below the defined poverty line of 45 US cents per day, and some million people are at risk of starvation each year. Although encouraging achievements in improving basic aspects of life were recorded in recent years, human development indicators still remain at very low levels compared with the rest of the world. Ethiopia’s population is growing by around 2 million people annually, putting tremendous strains on the country’s resource base, the ability to deliver services and the labour market. The Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty (PASDEP), Ethiopia’s second poverty reduction strategy paper, estimates that the country has to raise its average economic growth rate to 8% annually in order to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.

    1.1.2 Ethiopia is predominantly an agrarian economy. Levels of urbanization are very low compared to international standards. 85% of the population, and 90% of the poor, live in rural areas, most of them exclusively engaged in agriculture. Despite some achievements in recent years, employment creation in modern industrial and service sectors has been hampered by the slow pace of private sector development. The manufacturing sector continues to be based narrowly on food, beverages and textiles, which together account for more than half of the manufacturing output. Out of the registered small and medium sized enterprises, for example, 85% are grain mills. Most of the registered large and medium sized enterprises in the manufacturing sector (about 800 of them) are concentrated in Addis Ababa. Although the proportion has increased, only 27% of large-scale manufacturing industries in 2002/3 were privately owned.

    1.1.3 Around 35 million people of the Ethiopian work force are characterized by low skill levels and very low average educational attainment. Only 10% of the urban population has post-secondary school education. As a consequence, 75% of the workforce is concentrated in low skill employment sectors such as commerce, services and elementary occupations. Less than half of the urban workforce is engaged in wage employment. A significant portion of the urban workforce works for unpaid family business. More than 40% are self-employed in the informal economy, most of which live on the edge of poverty.

    1.1.4 Unemployment and underemployment is a pervasive problem due to the absence of a dynamic private sector. In rural areas, underemployment is widespread. In urban areas, about 26% of the workforce is officially unemployed, a figure believed to underestimate the real situation. Of particular concern is that unemployment among the youth is significantly higher than the rest of the workforce. Recent studies have also shown substantial skill gaps throughout the economy, especially in economic sectors with a higher skill level and outside of Addis Ababa.

    1.2.         The Policy Framework

    1.2.1 With the Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty (PASDEP), the Industrial Development Strategy and other sector development strategies, the Ethiopian Government has initiated a new push towards creating frameworks conducive to economic and social development. Comprehensive capacity building and human capital formation are key pillars in all these efforts. As such, this National TVET Strategy is an important element of the overall policy framework towards development and poverty reduction.

    1.2.2 The PASDEP’s main thrust is to fight poverty through accelerated economic growth, to be achieved mainly through commercialization of agriculture as well as economic growth and employment creation through private sector development. TVET is expected to play a key role in this strategy by building the required motivated and competent workforce. PASDEP envisages TVET to provide the necessary “relevant and demand-driven education and training that corresponds to the needs of economic and social sectors for employment and self-employment”. The Strategy further stresses the need for an increasing role and involvement of the private sector and non-governmental organisations, as well as community involvement, in the delivery of educational services. In order to avoid the mismatch of the available resources with increasing demands, measures for improving efficiency and cost-effectiveness are called for.

    1.2.3 The Industrial Development Strategy of 2003 highlights the tremendous human resource deficits in Ethiopia being a major reason for the low state of industrial development.  According to the Strategy “we do not as yet have an educational and a training system that is capable of producing the manpower that is both professionally and ethically capable of carrying and sustaining the responsibility of seeing to it that our industrial development program will have achieved its goals”. It therefore, calls for efforts to raise the quality of the Ethiopian workforce to international standards, to reverse the previous marginalization of industrial professions in the TVET system, and to put a substantial focus on building a culture of entrepreneurship and preparing people for self-employment.

    1.2.4 The Education Sector Strategy Programme (ESDP) III outlines a comprehensive development vision  for the TVET sector. Based on the analysis that TVET graduates are currently not meeting the expectations and demands of economic sectors, the strategy paper advocates a coherent system including formal and non-formal, initial and further training, with open access to certification and pathways with the general and higher education system. ESDP III has therefore allocated a total of 3,000 million ETB to TVET over a five-year period in order to further increase enrolment rates, strengthen quality assurance, improve teaching methods, invest in physical infrastructure, equipment, training materials, libraries and ICT facilities, build centres of excellence and assessment centres, curricula and training material improvements, and other investments. People in rural areas, both in agricultural and non-agricultural sectors, are to receive special attention. Measures to ensure financial sustainability, to improve management in training institutions and to involve industry in planning, management and delivery of TVET are envisaged. As such, the ESDP III touches upon important pillars for the further development of TVET in Ethiopia.

    1.3.         Current State of TVET Development

    1.3.1 Traditionally, Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) has been fragmented and delivered by different providers at various qualification levels. Public TVET institutions under the education sector were concentrating on producing middle level technical graduates at post Grade 10 level. In parallel with this, public and private companies have had their own TVET programmes, as have NGOs and private TVET providers. Meanwhile, in non-formal TVET programmes, public institutions, NGOs, and private schools offer employment-oriented TVET programmes to various target groups, including school leavers, people in employment, school drop outs and marginalized groups in the labour market. Unlike formal TVET, these programmes are not yet systematically delivered. Informal (on-the-job) training is widespread, but due to the absence of a systematic assessment and certification system there are currently no mechanisms to recognize informal occupational learning. Traditional apprenticeships in the small and micro enterprise sector constitute another presumably important, yet entirely un-researched, training environment. Public and private training schemes planned to produce administrative and health personnel to the market in sufficient quantity. Agriculture TVET programmes, which have been massively expanded during recent years, are disconnected structurally with non-agriculture TVET programmes.

    1.3.2 In order to provide options for the increasing number of school leavers, the Government embarked upon a massive expansion of formal TVET some years ago. Between 1996/7 and 2004/5, the number of TVET institutions providing formal non-agriculture TVET increased from 17 to 199, and enrolment from 3,000 to 106,305. Of these, 31% were trained in non-government TVET institutions. Around 60% of formal TVET is provided in the form of regular programmes and 40% in evening classes. However, despite the enormous expansion, formal TVET only caters for less than 3% of the relevant age group. Enrolment figures in formal TVET programmes show a fair gender balance with 51% female students. However, girls are over proportionately represented in commerce and typical female occupations such as textiles and hospitality, and underrepresented in traditional technical occupations. In 2004/05, another 42,000 trainees were enrolled in agriculture TVET programmes and some 10,000 in teacher training institutes and colleges.

    1.3.3 Overall it is unknown how many Ethiopians in total have access to relevant TVET (including formal, non- and informal TVET). It is assumed, however, that demand by far exceeds the current supply and that the majority of the population is not reached by TVET offers at the moment. In particular, TVET accessible to school-drop outs, unemployed, workers in industry and the MSE sector, prospective entrepreneurs, people living in rural areas and women is in very short supply.

    1.3.4 Since late 1990s, the government has committed itself to overhauling and reforming the basic framework conditions of the TVET system. This measure recognized the fact that while the country was in dire need of craftsperson and technician, training programmes lacked relevance to the workplace reality. Nevertheless, this reform process was slow and limited by the fact that all efforts and resources were directed towards the massive quantitative expansion of the public TVET supply. As a consequence, the programmes, by-and-large, do not address actual competence needs in the economy, with most programmes of low quality and theory-driven due to resource constraints and lack of skilled TVET teachers. A systematic integration of TVET with the world of work has not yet been achieved. Most curricula used in formal TVET were not developed based on occupational standards.

    1.3.5 With the introduction of the new middle level TVET programmes, an industrial attachment period has been introduced to formal TVET. However, its implementation has faced a number of problems, mainly due to the lack of cooperation of the employers as they were not consulted during the planning process. An internship and cooperative training system based on profound cooperation between TVET institutions and employers and a joint training delivery still needs to be developed in order to increase the quality of TVET and hence the employability of graduates.

    1.3.6 There are also indications that TVET lacks effectiveness and efficiency. Studies have shown that many TVET graduates remain unemployed even in those occupational fields that show a high demand for skilled manpower. Furthermore, substantial resource wastages occurred as a result of underutilization of equipment in public TVET institutions.

    1.3.7 The shortage of a sufficient corps of TVET teachers/instructors represents one of the obstacles to TVET development in Ethiopia. The quality of TVET teachers/instructors has suffered as a result of the low reputation of their profession. Most TVET teachers/instructors have relatively low formal qualifications, severely affecting TVET delivery at higher qualification levels. Furthermore, technical teachers, more often than not, have been unmotivated. They did not choose to become technical teachers, but were placed in technical teacher colleges because there were no other options available to them. Finally, existing TVET teachers/instructors are (mostly) inappropriately practically skilled, i.e. not competent to provide TVET in accordance with the occupational standards. This is a result of a training system that long emphasised theoretical knowledge (though often not aligned with modern technology requirements), disregarding the importance of practical skills and appreciation of the world of work.

    1.3.8 Finally, under-funding is a structural problem in the TVET sector, particularly in the public system. Costs of TVET will remain high, if it is to be provided as centre-based training, which is still the predominant mode of TVET delivery in Ethiopia. As with most other countries, public TVET programmes in Ethiopia are usually more expensive than general education, requiring lower than average teacher/student ratio and substantial capital and recurrent expenses incurred through practical training. As a consequence of budgetary constraints, most urban public TVET programmes are under-funded while rural public TVET programmes suffered from poor facilities and shortages of training materials.

    1.3.9 Despite these immense structural problems, important reform measures have been introduced after the adoption of the National TVET Strategy of 2002 and the TVET Proclamation of 2004. A significant step was the broadened governance structure for TVET through the establishment of a National TVET Council comprising representatives from different government sectors including: State representatives, public and private TVET providers and the business community. This represented a step towards institutionalized stakeholder involvement and helped stimulate deeper integration and understanding of TVET within the broader Ethiopian development environment. A further strengthening measure of this governance set-up, however, will be necessary while the TVET reform is unfolding.

    1.3.10 Another important measure was to conceptualize and start implementing a new quality management system within the TVET sector. In line with international best practices, it was decided to move towards an occupational standard-based TVET system to replace the current curriculum-centred approach and to establish an occupational assessment system open to graduates and candidates from all formal, non-formal or informal TVET schemes. The system of occupational standards together with standard-based assessment and certification has to be considered the centrepiece of a TVET reform towards relevance, demand-orientation and accessibility. It requires further conceptualization and accelerated implementation.

    2.       Objectives of the National TVET Strategy

    2.0.1 The overall objective of the National TVET Strategy is to create a competent, motivated, adaptable and innovative workforce in Ethiopia contributing to poverty reduction and social and economic development through facilitating demand-driven, high quality technical and vocational education and training, relevant to all sectors of the economy, at all levels and to all people.

    2.0.2 Specifically, the National TVET Strategy aims to:

    Ø Create and further develop a comprehensive, integrated, outcome-based and decentralized TVET system for Ethiopia

    Ø Strengthen TVET institutions in view of making them Centres for Technology Capability, Accumulation & Transfer

    Ø Create a coherent framework for all actors and stakeholders in the TVET system

    Ø Establish and capacitate the necessary institutional set-up to manage and implement TVET in ensuring quality management system (QMS)

    Ø Improve the quality of TVET (formal and non-formal) at all levels and make it responsive to the needs of the labour market

    Ø Facilitate the expansion of relevant TVET offers which are crucial to national development

    Ø Strengthen the private training provision and encourage enterprises to participate in the TVET system

    Ø Empower women and rural people through skills development

    Ø Ensure equal access of women and people with special needs to TVET

    Ø Strengthen the culture of self-employment and support job creation in the economy, in particular in the emerging regions

    Ø Develop a sustainable financing system for TVET with efficient and cost-effective delivery systems and management structures

    Ø Build the necessary human capacities to effectively manage and implement TVET

    3.       Guiding Principles of the National TVET System

    3.0.1 In pursuing the objectives stated above, the following principles will guide and define further development and implementation of the TVET system:



    All TVET in Ethiopia has to respond to the competence needs and qualification requirements in the labour market. TVET is geared towards enhancing the competitiveness of all economic sectors through a competent workforce and towards improving people’s employability in the labour market and with regard to self-employment.

    Quality and Relevance:

    The TVET system strives for the highest quality and relevance of all TVET offers. It will develop effective means of quality management, will continuously monitor the relevance of TVET programmes and will provide support and guidance to TVET institutions to achieve defined quality standards. An important mechanism for this will be the introduction of the system of occupational standards, assessment and certification.


    Equal access and equal opportunity:

    The TVET system strives for social inclusion by increasing overall access to relevant formal, non-formal TVET and informal learning opportunities by all target groups, while ensuring equality of access. The previous neglect of people without relevant schooling, school drop-outs, people living in the rural areas, people with special needs, and people who are already in work will be overcome. TVET will be accessible, irrespective of the level of educational attainment, gender, ethnic and religious affiliation.


    The TVET system will promote vertical and horizontal mobility and progression between different TVET occupations and different qualification levels, but also between TVET, general and higher education. TVET should always create the possibility of career progression and continuation of learning.


    To respond to the changing occupational requirements and to accommodate the different demand of the various target groups, the TVET system will allow and encourage flexibility and dynamic development of the TVET offers. This applies to the organisation and delivery of TVET programmes as well as to the way in which people can pursue their individual occupational careers.

    Life-long learning:

    The TVET system will provide life-long learning opportunities (including initial and further TVET) to enable the workforce to keep apace with the rapidly changing work environments brought about by technological progress and development in the organisation of work. Life-long learning also implies that people can continuously enhance their recognised qualifications.

    Gender sensitivity:

    TVET will be gender-sensitive. All TVET opportunities will be equally accessible to female. TVET institutions will have to develop gender sensitive policies in order to ensure that they are not discriminated against through content nor organisation of TVET programmes and to effectively prevent harassment of female trainees and staff members.


    Contributing to the fight against HIV/AIDS:

    TVET will contribute to the fight against the spread of HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia by incorporating awareness creation and training about preventive measures in all its programmes. Furthermore, TVET institutions will develop policies to ensure that HIV positive trainees and staff members are not discriminated against.

    Contributing to environmental protection:

    TVET will help create environmental awareness in Ethiopia and will educate Ethiopians about sustainable uses of scarce natural resources.

    4.       Conceptual Principles of the TVET System

    4.1.         Making TVET Institutions Centres of Technology Capability Accumulation & Transfer

    4.1.1 TVET institutions are mainly expected to replicate new and selected technologies and transfer the same to the relevant industry in order to increase the competitiveness of the sector according to international standards. It's also needed that these technologies focus on creative capacity building and greatly contribute to the economic development of the country in a bid to mitigate regional problems. Their benefit will be significant since the trainees who pass through this process are endowed with outstanding and international workforce ethics.

    4.1.2 In order to replicate the technologies it is required to refer to international best practice and use it as a basis for occupational standard and curriculum development Closing teachers' and trainers’ competence gaps will be addressed  by hiring foreign experts. Their role is to capacitate Ethiopian teachers and trainers so that they can implement new TVET programmes based on occupational standards. By doing so, teachers, trainers and trainees will be able to contribute to transfer the technology to the industry.

    4.1.3 TVET institutions having accumulated technology capabilities, and using this potential to promote technology transfer, contribute to the enhancement of productivity and the competitiveness of industries. TVET institutions are expected to revamp and supply services to the market to transfer the newly selected technologies. Another task of the institutions is to properly utilize their respective resources and to deliver services against fees. The income generated from such activities enables to create further potential to increase the capability of the institutions.

    4.1.4 Moreover, the institutions are expected to relevantly transfer the technologies to micro and small enterprise (MSE) sector in order to increase their productivity, improve the quality of products and services and facilitate creation of new business. Provision of TVET programmes and technology transfer services are the means to strengthen MSE in urban and semi-urban areas.

    4.2.         Aiming at a Comprehensive and Integrated TVET System

    4.2.1 As stated above, the previous TVET environment in Ethiopia was characterized by fragmentation and lack of coordination between the different delivery systems. Formal TVET was concentrated on secondary school leavers. Non-formal TVET offers were available to other selected target groups. They did not, however, reach the broader range of groups in need of TVET. No formally recognized TVET certification was available for learning outcomes achieved through non-formal and informal modes of training or learning. There was no coordination between public and private TVET supply. Furthermore, TVET targeting of groups in rural areas was divided into agriculture and non-agriculture TVET running side-by-side without joint and coordinated planning. This situation resulted in the inefficient use of scarce resources available for TVET in Ethiopia; lack of transparent and low quality of TVET offers and duplication of programmes and efforts.

    4.2.2 In order to overcome this inefficient and ineffective fragmentation in the future, the TVET system will explicitly address the occupational requirements in all segments of the labour market, target all population groups in need of TVET and thus incorporate and coordinate all aspects of TVET in Ethiopia. Therefore, TVET is seen as an overarching term to describe all modes of formal, non-formal and informal training and learning below higher education provided by all public and non-public providers and companies.

    4.2.3 Against this background, the TVET system shall build a competent and adaptable workforce according to the needs of different segments of the labour market, in particular:

    Ø The rural labour market, which provides economic opportunities for the vast majority of Ethiopians both in agriculture and non-agricultural activities. TVET will address the occupational requirements for improved agricultural production and tap the many unexploited off-farm opportunities in rural areas;

    Ø The urban and semi-urban micro and small business sector. TVET is geared towards enhancing productivity in the MSE sector, improving the quality of products and services and supporting start-up businesses by providing training and serving as centres for technology transfer;

    Ø In  the mainly urban formal sector comprising both public and private enterprises, TVET will address competence needs in existing companies and provide an adequately competent workforce necessary to attract new investments;

    Ø In the Civil Service, which urgently needs improved quality of public service delivery; TVET will provide special attention in this regard.

    4.2.4 The TVET system aims to provide more TVET opportunities to a wider range of different target groups than previously. In addition to school leavers, the TVET system will therefore address:

    Ø School drop-outs;

    Ø People without formal education, including illiterate people;

    Ø Entrepreneurs and employees (including formal and informal apprentices) in both formal and informal enterprises who require skills upgrading and access to recognised qualifications;

    Ø Farmers and their families;

    Ø Unemployed people who need initial TVET or retraining to support their re-integration into the labour market;

    Ø People with special constraints to properly engage in economic participation, such as single mothers, people with disabilities, people from marginalized ethnic groups and other groups that have been marginalised in the labour market.

    4.2.5 Particular emphasis will be given to encourage girls and women from all Regions, to participate in social and educational activities to develop their occupational competences which will bring about their social and economic empowerment.

    4.2.6 The needs of different target groups will be addressed through different forms of TVET or learning environments, taking into consideration their aptitudes and personal ambitions, specific competence needs and other specific requirements. The TVET system will therefore provide flexibility in the organisation and delivery of TVET programmes and will support the emergence and development of innovative modes of TVET delivery. Through its mechanisms – such as the outcome-based organisation of the TVET system, allocation of resources and provision of support, modular training organisation, access to occupational assessment leading to recognized qualifications, and coordination mechanisms – the TVET system will integrate different formal, non-formal and in-formal aspects of TVET into a single coordinated system that accords equal attention to trainees’ development. Specifically, the TVET system will assist formal and non-formal initial TVET schemes (both TVET institution-based and cooperative), all short-term TVET, skills upgrading schemes in and by enterprises, traditional apprenticeships provided by skilled crafts(wo)men, and informal learning such as learning on-the-job and self-organized activities.

    4.2.7 This means that the TVET authorities will not only cooperate with and concentrate on formal TVET institutions. On the contrary, they will strengthen all public and non-public TVET institutions, providing both formal and non-formal TVET. Particular emphasis will be given to promoting and strengthening TVET provided by companies. To this end, incentives will be given for cooperative TVET (apprenticeship training), and special programmes of assistance will be designed to assist skilled crafts(wo)men during their training in the MSE sector.

    4.3.         Stakeholders’ Involvement

    4.3.1 TVET operates at the interface of different sectors of society, notably the education sector, the labour market, industry, MSE sectors, agriculture and rural development, and public administration. In order to serve and relate to all these sectors through high quality and demand-responsive instruments, the TVET system must be steered and implemented with the involvement of a wide stakeholder group. Different stakeholders will each contribute their own expertise, experience and capacities, in order that their combined efforts improve the relevance and effectiveness of the TVET system.

    4.3.2 Specifically stakeholders are needed to play a major role in the following functions of the TVET system:

    Ø Policy development and policy drafting and reviewing through participation in relevant bodies and panels;

    Ø Financing through contributing resources to the TVET system;

    Ø Quality assurance through active involvement in the setting of occupational standards and conducting occupational assessment;

    Ø TVET delivery through the provision of training to their own staff, offering internships to trainees and providing apprenticeship training;

    Ø Monitoring and evaluation through participation in TVET councils at federal and state levels and taking over key roles on the Management Boards of TVET institutions.

    4.3.3 The interest of different stakeholders may change over time as the national economy and society develop and specific demands on the TVET system change. At the moment, the most important stakeholders include employers, both private and public; the business sector; representatives from the MSE sectors (possibly represented through their trade associations); workers and employees represented by trade unions and professional associations; public and private TVET providers; Civil Society and NGOs; people living and working in rural areas represented by relevant associations; teachers/instructors in the TVET system; trainees and their families; and public authorities in charge of sectors relevant for TVET, notably education, capacity building, agriculture, trade and industry, labour and social affairs, health, youth and sports and finance and these will be members of the TVET Council. These stakeholders may play different roles in each of the core functions of TVET and the nature of their involvement may vary over time as the TVET system unfolds.

    4.3.4 Stakeholder participation, however, does not come without cost and efforts. Stakeholders who were previously mere consumers of TVET services are now expected to invest time, thoughts, ideas and finances towards the improvement of TVET. In order to encourage stakeholders to undertake such investments, the government is prepared to share responsibility proportionate to the capacity of the respective stakeholders and entertain different interests and opinions.

    4.4.         Public Private Partnership

    4.4.1 International experiences show that successful TVET systems are built on strong and well-defined partnerships between government and the non-government sector. Both public and non-public actors are currently involved in TVET. This public-private partnership needs to be further strengthened and roles therein defined.

    4.4.2 In the TVET system, the statutory function and key role of government comprises the regulation of the system through proclamations and regulations and facilitation of the implementation of the regulated functions. In this sense, responsibilities vested in the government include policy and law making, implementation of a quality management system, i.e. regulation and implementation of the system of occupational standards, occupational assessment and certification, setting the qualifications framework, defining rules and mechanisms for TVET financing where appropriate, defining and implementing accreditation mechanisms for TVET providers as well as research and monitoring. In line with the principle of building a stakeholder-driven TVET system, federal, state and local governments will fulfil these functions by involving stakeholders and thereby establish fruitful partnership in the implementation of all these functions.

    4.4.3 Concerning TVET delivery, the non-public sector needs to play a decisive role. It already contributes significantly through in-company TVET schemes and, in particular, through wide-spread traditional apprenticeship training provided in the micro and small business sector. However, the quality of this TVET is often low and requires increased attention and support. In addition to these employer-based TVET schemes, non-government TVET institutions will become an increasingly important pillar of the overall TVET supply.

    4.4.4 Private TVET is important in many respects. First of all, it has the opportunity to fully utilize the experiences and capacities of the private sector in order to improve the quality and relevance of TVET; secondly by increasing resources invested in TVET, it will improve the overall TVET supply and hence accessibility of the system; and finally, by partly relieving government from the burden of TVET delivery, this would enable the government to concentrate its resources and efforts on its regulatory and supportive functions. To achieve these functions, the role of non-public TVET providers needs to be further strengthened. This applies to commercial and non-commercial TVET institutions, to private enterprises developing in-company TVET, staff training schemes, internships and cooperative TVET (apprenticeship) schemes as well as to TVET provided within the micro and small business sector, in particular traditional apprenticeship.

    4.4.5 TVET authorities, in cooperation with stakeholders, will take all initiatives necessary to create an enabling and conducive environment for non-public TVET supply to develop. This includes an enabling regulatory environment (licensing and accreditation) and access to all support services provided within the TVET system. The TVET authorities will also consider, depending on the circumstances, the development of financial incentive schemes such as tax/duty exemptions.

    4.4.6 However, considering the current weak state of private and non-public sector development in Ethiopia, government must still play a major role as TVET provider in the foreseeable future. This will mainly apply to those TVET areas where the private sector is unlikely to venture at the moment and where strategic economic and social objectives have to be safeguarded. Hence, various government institutions will remain major TVET providers in long-term initial TVET, specialized technology training, TVET provided in remote areas, and other fields.

    4.4.7 Considering the infant stage of the TVET environment in Ethiopia, another key role of government is the facilitation of support mechanisms to strengthen the ability of public and non-public providers to deliver their services. This includes facilitating TVET teacher/instructor training and further training and other important instruments to build TVET providers’ capacities.

    4.5.          Outcome-Based Approach

    4.5.1 The goal of the TVET system - as formulated in its vision and objectives - is to create a competent and adaptable workforce (both male and female) to be the backbone of economic and social development and to enable an increasing number of citizens to find gainful employment and self-employment in the different economic sectors of the country.

    4.5.2 To this end, the national TVET system, in line with many modern TVET systems worldwide, will be re-organized into an outcome-based system. This means that identified competences needed in the labour market will become the final benchmark of teaching, training and learning, and that all institutions, rules and regulations of the TVET system will be (re-)defined so that they support citizens to become competent.

    4.5.3 Competence is a broad concept comprising the possession and application of a set of skills, knowledge and attitudes which are necessary to successfully compete for jobs in the labour market; to be a productive and adaptable entrepreneur, employee or self-employed, and thus to contribute to personal empowerment in economic and social development.

    4.5.4 Competences will be described in National Occupational Standards to be developed by people knowledgeable on and experienced in the world of work. As such, the National Occupational Standards define the outcome of all training and learning expected by the labour market, and will form the benchmark of all quality management within the TVET system.

    4.5.5 Output quality of TVET delivery will be measured through a process of learner’s achieved competence. This is done through occupational assessment, which is based on the occupational standards. A candidate who has proven, through occupational assessment (which may be one assessment or a series of assessments), that s/he is competent will be awarded a National Occupational Certificate, which is the official proof of a person’s competence in a TVET relevant occupational area. Occupational assessment, and hence certification, is open to everybody who has developed the required competence through any means of formal and non-formal TVET or informal learning. As a result, the outcome-based system is a major tool to accord equal importance to all forms of TVET delivery.

    4.5.6 In the outcome-based TVET system, the goal of TVET providers is to create the necessary skills, knowledge and attitudes of trainees, so that they are able to perform according to occupational standards, and hence receive certification. Thus TVET providers have to develop curricula that are based on the National Occupational Standards and are appropriate to the relevant learning process. Curricula will have to consider specific requirements of the target groups and specific local labour market requirements. As a consequence, the previous practice of prescribing binding national curricula will no longer be implemented once the outcome-based quality management system is fully established. Instead of this, each TVET provider may find their own curricular solutions to provide high quality TVET to their specific target group.

    4.5.7 In the meantime, considering the weak state of development of TVET institutions in Ethiopia, the TVET system will ensure that all necessary support is given to TVET providers to develop appropriate curricula and develop capacities for high quality TVET delivery. This may be facilitated through developing curriculum development guides, model curricula or the like to serve as orientation and assistance to TVET providers.

    4.6.         Decentralization

    4.6.1 In accordance with the decentralization policy of the Ethiopian government, the new TVET system will aim at progressive decentralization, i.e. the responsibility for all functions will be gradually devolved to lower levels in the system in order to increase efficiency of services and responsiveness to the needs of the actual target groups.

    4.6.2 In a decentralized TVET system, the federal authorities will be responsible for national policy formulation and all statutory functions at national level (i.e. system of occupational standards, assessment, certification, drawing up of accreditation rules, and others), the system of TVET teacher/instructor training and further training, as well as coordination, advice to authorities at lower levels and implementation of selective support instruments to the implementing actors.

    4.6.3 Main responsibility for implementation of the new TVET system rests with the state authorities which may, again, delegate functions to lower levels as appropriate. The state TVET authorities will plan, coordinate, support and supervise the TVET provision in their respective Regions, secure funding for the public TVET institutions in the regions, develop support mechanisms for non-public TVET supply and implement the statutory functions on behalf of the Federal TVET Agency. The state authorities will also capacitate zonal and woreda TVET Offices and the TVET Councils at lower levels and delegate functions proportionate to their respective capacities.

    4.6.4 To ensure the demand-orientation of the actual TVET delivery and its linkage with the local labour market, the TVET system intends to delegate major responsibilities directly to the TVET institutions. Experience in other countries clearly shows a direct relationship between operational autonomy of TVET institutions in terms of use of resources, overall management and planning of TVET programmes on the one hand, and improvement of quality and learning outcomes on the other hand. The Ethiopian TVET system, therefore, aims, in the medium term, to grant far-reaching planning and management responsibilities to public TVET institutions. In the future, TVET institutions will be held accountable for the success of their training delivery. This may also be supported by development of performance-based funding mechanisms.

    4.6.5 With the acquisition of broader management responsibilities at institutional level, public TVET institutions will be required to form a management board comprising all relevant local stakeholders, including representatives of the local business community. The management boards will be responsible for school supervision and will approve plans, budgets and reports of the same. Non-public TVET providers will also be encouraged to form management boards to secure their integration into the local economic environment.

    4.6.6 To implement decentralization, capacities need to be strengthened at all levels, especially at zonal, woreda and TVET institution level. TVET authorities at the federal and state levels will allocate sufficient resources for training and capacity building of lower level authorities, management of TVET institutions and members of the management boards of the institutions.

    4.7.         Efficiency in the TVET System

    4.7.1 To make best use of scarce resources, all necessary efforts will be undertaken to increase efficiency in the TVET system. This applies to the management of TVET at all levels, the method of TVET delivery and the possibilities of recognizing previous learning achievements.

    4.7.2 Efficiency will be raised at all levels of the TVET management through appropriate organisational development, human resource development policies and clear definitions of functions and responsibilities. Studies indicate that a significant scope for improving internal efficiency in TVET institutions, e.g. through increased capacity utilization, improved human resource and financial management, and better management of equipment, tools and training materials may be undertaken. To this end, management capacity building will be provided to TVET institutions’ management based on thorough problem and needs analyses. Furthermore, the gradual delegation of increased management responsibilities to TVET institutions, including responsibilities in the recruitment of trainees, is expected to improve internal efficiency. This may be complemented by the introduction of performance-based budgeting in the public TVET institute.

    4.7.3 Strengthening cost-effective modes of TVET delivery is another important means of improving efficiency in the TVET system. Accordingly, cooperative TVET schemes will be promoted and TVET institutions will be encouraged to develop flexible and better solutions for cost-effective TVET delivery.

    4.7.4 The integration of non- formal and informal TVET with formal TVET through recognition of previous learning outcomes will eventually add significantly to the overall efficiency of the system, avoiding unnecessary learning duplications. This will be achieved through the modularization of TVET, through the introduction of occupational standards guiding formally, non-formally and informally acquired skills, knowledge and attitude and through opening access to occupational assessment and certification.

    5.        Institution Building for Outcome-Based TVET

    5.0.1 Previously, TVET delivery did not consider the competence requirements of the labour market as it should be in occupational standards; thus, it failed to appropriately address the ever-changing demands of the labour market. Building an outcome-based TVET system is therefore the centrepiece of the TVET reform that strives for enhanced quality and relevance of TVET. An outcome-based TVET system design will also make it easier to recognize the wide range of non-formal training and informal learning schemes available, opening access to previously neglected target groups.

    5.0.2 In the outcome-based TVET system, the federal government will meet its responsibility for ensuring quality and relevance of TVET by:

    Ø facilitating the setting of National Occupational Standards which is fairly equivalent to international standards and;

    Ø organising an occupational assessment and certification system which offers National Occupational Qualification Certificates to those who have proven, in an assessment, that they are competent in accordance with the defined occupational standards.

    5.0.3 In the process of an outcome-based TVET system, the government has the statutory responsibility to set rules and regulations. It does so in cooperation with employers and other experts knowledgeable about the requirements in the world of work.

    Outcome-based Organization of TVET System

    Text Box: Qu






    Text Box: Occupational Standard



    Text Box: Support of curriculum develop-ment: curriculum development manual, model curricula, etc.















    5.1.         Preparation of Occupational Standards

    5.1.1 Occupational standards define the competences of a worker according to requirements in the labour market. As outlined above, occupational standards comprehensively describe the competence a person has to achieve in order to be considered “qualified” in a certain field. Competence includes the entire range of skills, knowledge and attitudes necessary to perform a specific job. Occupational standards will be developed for all occupational fields at all relevant qualification levels attainable within the TVET system. Each occupational standard can be broken down into units that describe a set of “employable” competences. Occupational standards will be described in the same, nationally approved, format and will be publicly available. This will enhance transparency about occupational qualifications among employers, trainees and TVET providers.

    5.1.2 Responsibility for organizing, facilitating and endorsing occupational standards rests with the Federal TVET Agency. However, as occupational standards reflect the competence requirements of the world of work, stakeholders from the world of work particularly employers will be the major actors in the development of the standards, as they are in the developed and emerging countries. The TVET Agency will, therefore, form expert panels for standard setting, comprised mainly of experts with a profound knowledge of workplace requirements.

    5.1.3 Appropriate internationally recognized occupational standards shall be checked for compatibility with the participation of the industry and verified to be in conformity with the national vision. Then it shall be approved as the National Occupational Standard by the Federal TVET Agency. Consensus shall be obtained on the modality of identifying the pertinent standard setting from the internationally recognized ones. The Federal TVET Agency shall prescribe the procedures to be followed for standard setting and publishing them.

    5.1.4 Occupational standards must be based on the needs of the labour market. Therefore, the identification and clustering of occupations – for which occupational standards will be developed – will be made with reference to the needs of the national labour market demand. A labour market analysis will be instrumental in identifying the need for new occupations as well as indicating the need for revision and adaptation of existing national standards once technological and/or economic developments bring about changes to the qualification needs.

    5.1.5 Identification and clustering of occupations will be made in close cooperation with the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs and the Civil Service Agency as well as other concerned bodies to ensure that the TVET occupational standards take into account the defined occupational titles from the National Occupational Classification System.

    5.1.6 Occupational qualifications should be designed so that they are internationally compatible in order to ensure the international competitiveness of the Ethiopian employee. Thus, occupational standards should reflect – as far as possible – international standards of competence, while at the same time be based on workplace requirements within the nation. In order to facilitate this, procedures for standard setting should also include methods to adapt or adopt existing standards from other countries.

    5.1.7 As a rule, occupational standards will be developed at the national level, facilitated and approved by the Federal TVET Agency. However, should state or local labour market needs so require, standard setting initiatives may also be undertaken by regional TVET authorities. Appropriate rules for recognizing standards developed at state or local levels will thus be developed.

    5.2.         Occupational Assessment and Certification

    5.2.1 Occupational assessment and subsequent certification is the main feature of the outcome-based TVET system to verify individual occupational competences. For all defined occupational qualifications at all levels, occupational assessment and certification will be offered. Occupational qualification certificates will be awarded upon passing the occupational assessments.

    5.2.2 Occupational assessment and certification will be accessible to all candidates who feel competent that they meet the requirements of the respective occupational standard, irrespective of how and where they were trained or learned. Contrary to past practice in Ethiopia, access to occupational qualifications will no longer be dependent on attending a formal TVET programme. Graduates from any formal and non-formal TVET programme will, in the future, have access to occupational assessment and certification, as well as those who have learned informally (i.e. on the job, through traditional apprenticeship or through self-learning). Hence, occupational assessment will be the major tool to integrate different TVET delivery modes and recognize prior learning, significantly increasing access to the TVET system and its qualifications for a greater section of the society.

    5.2.3 Occupational assessment will take place in designated or accredited public or private assessment centres. Assessments will be conducted by accredited assessors, possibly experts from the world of work or trainers. In order to improve the employability of TVET graduates, occupational qualifications and certificates need to be recognized by employers. It is therefore vital that experts from the enterprises are essential members of the groups of assessors. As far as possible, relevant business or employers’ associations will be integrated into the management of assessment.

    5.2.4 Responsibility for establishing and facilitating a national occupational assessment and certification system rests with the Federal TVET Agency. It will stipulate rules and procedures for assessment item development, for conducting assessments and will facilitate, supervise and regulate the system. Responsibility for implementing the occupational assessment, i.e. ensuring that assessment is properly conducted and certificates issued, rests with the state TVET authorities.

    5.2.5 State TVET centers of competence will be established under the state authorities as core institutions for implementing and facilitating occupational assessment. In order to ensure that assessment is accessible to all citizens, including those in remote areas, further assessment venues will be accredited to implement occupational assessment in specified fields. These will include enterprising and excelling TVET institutions in particular.

    5.2.6 For those who successfully pass occupational assessment, a National Occupational Qualification Certificate will be issued by the state TVET authorities upon delegation and on behalf of the Federal TVET Agency.

    5.3.         TVET Qualifications Framework

    5.3.1 A TVET Qualifications Framework (ETQF) will be developed in order to define the value of qualifications, ensure that different qualifications are comparable, and facilitate horizontal and vertical mobility within the TVET system. The ETQF will:

    Ø  Define the different occupational qualification levels;

    Ø  Devise level descriptors, i.e. define the scope and composition of qualifications and the level of responsibility a qualified person can assume in the workplace;

    Ø Formulate rules for horizontal and vertical mobility, i.e. rules for moving between different occupational areas and between different qualification levels.

    5.3.2 Occupational qualifications should also provide opportunities to move from TVET into the general education system and to progress to higher education. Therefore, the ETQF will be built with a view to eventually being integrated into an overarching National Qualifications Framework. Such a framework would define qualification levels, relationships and equivalences among different qualifications for the entire education and training system including primary education, secondary education, TVET and higher education. It would stipulate rules and requirements to move between general education and TVET, and to move up from occupational qualifications into the higher education system. As such, the establishment of a national qualifications framework would be the major tool to facilitate mobility through recognition of achievements and the possible alignment of training offers to a common reference scale.

    5.3.3 The TVET authorities will liaise with the relevant general and higher education authorities to develop and establish a national qualifications framework jointly, and to align TVET and higher education policies in the field of qualifications.

    5.3.4 Where recognition of occupational qualifications as a basis for access to the national education system requires additional or reduced educational attainments, appropriate educational offers, e.g. bridging courses or module exemptions, should be made available.

    6.       Developing Flexible TVET Delivery

    6.0.1 Outcome-based TVET provides high flexibility in the way TVET can be delivered. In the future, individual TVET institutions can, in principle, decide how best to organize TVET to their target groups and according to occupational requirements. The new system will also facilitate the emergence of modern teaching and learning methodologies, which are learner-centred and geared towards empowering trainees to assume responsibility for their own learning. The only benchmark stipulated by the TVET system will be the outcome, i.e. the desired competences defined in the occupational standards.

    6.0.2 As described in more detail in section 7.3, the TVET authorities will provide all necessary assistance to TVET providers to develop curricula and TVET programmes in accordance with the needs of their target groups.

    6.1.         Modularization as a Principle of TVET-Delivery

    6.1.1 TVET programmes will be organized in a modular fashion to meet the requirements as defined in the occupational standards. In this way, each module or combination of modules describes an employable set of competences. Successful completion of each training module shall be dependent on assessment and certification in conjunction with the assessment specifications stipulated in the occupational standards. The modularization of TVET is a central mechanism of making TVET delivery flexible and providing for flexible entry and exit points.

    6.1.2 Different TVET modules can be combined into long-term programmes representing the entire teaching, training and learning necessary to achieve an occupational qualification. Through this modularization, a trainee may, for personal reasons, exit a long-term programme prematurely while having acquired competences that would allow her/him to successfully perform certain jobs in the labour market. S/he may re-enter the TVET programme at a later stage, continue with the missing modules and thus complete her/his qualification.

    6.1.3 Individual modules or a number of modules may also be delivered in short programmes. In this case trainees either acquire an important set of competences (equivalent to a partial qualification) valuable in the labour market, and/or achieve the first steps of a potentially longer TVET career that may eventually lead to a comprehensive occupational competence. In the course of their individual career, trainees may attend different TVET modules over time, if necessary by different providers, to finally master a comprehensive competence.

    6.1.4 Modular TVET organisation is a fairly new concept in the Ethiopian TVET environment. TVET providers need new skills to develop modularized curricula, and management skills for TVET institution managers to re-organise their training plans accordingly. The TVET executive bodies will therefore render necessary support to TVET institutes by developing curriculum guides, further training technical teachers and capacity building in the organisation of modular training.

    6.2.         Cooperative TVET Delivery and Apprenticeship Training

    6.2.1 The flexibility of TVET delivery also allows for a strengthening and further development and deepening of cooperative TVET (including apprenticeship training). Cooperative TVET is a mode of TVET provided in partnership between enterprises and TVET institutions. Usually, the bulk of practical training takes place in an enterprise, while theory and initial practical exposure is provided by the TVET institution. In more advanced TVET systems – for instance in many European countries – cooperative TVET schemes are organized as formal apprenticeship training, implying a work or apprenticeship contract between the trainee and the company.

    6.2.2 The major advantage of apprenticeship training (and more generally cooperative TVET delivery forms) is its vicinity to the world of work. Trainees are systematically exposed to the world of work and learn the occupational practice in a real life situation. Experience shows that this leads to significantly better training outcomes, practical skills, work attitudes and theoretical comprehension of the occupational requirements. Furthermore, enterprises get to know the trainees, which often lead to employment after graduation. Through cooperative TVET schemes companies can also contribute to the further development of TVET system. Finally, apprenticeships and other forms of cooperative training tend to be more cost-effective than school-based TVET, as TVET institutions need not invest in sophisticated machinery and training periods in the institutions will be shorter.

    6.2.3 At the moment, elements of cooperative TVET are included in the formal TVET programmes in the form of workplace internships of several months. This represents an important step forward in making the TVET system more relevant. However, cooperative training should be deepened to fully utilize its advantages for the TVET system. To this end, maximum flexibility is given to TVET providers to negotiate and develop relationships with individual employers, groups of employers or business/sector associations about the organization of cooperative delivery schemes. TVET providers will also be encouraged to venture into more agreements with small companies and the micro enterprise sector as these companies represent the target labour market for a large group of trainees. As a rule, providers will have the freedom to develop cooperative TVET programmes in accordance with specific needs and potentials of companies and trainees, as long as the training is oriented on the occupational standards and will enable trainees to achieve the necessary competences of a qualification or part of a qualification.

    6.2.4 The TVET executive bodies will explore possibilities to encourage large companies and micro and small enterprises to cooperate with TVET institutions and to introduce apprenticeships, e.g. through advertising, rewarding participating companies or financial incentives.

    6.3.         TVET for Self-Employment

    6.3.1 Self-employment represents an important route into the labour market, especially in peri-urban and rural areas. However, self-employment requires more than being technically competent in a certain occupational field. In order to become successful, entrepreneurs need self-confidence, creativity, a realistic assessment of the market, basic business management skills and openness to risks. Starting a business, furthermore, requires access to finance, access to necessary permits and licensing, and access to land or structures to operate from.

    6.3.2 Against this background, basic entrepreneurial and business management training will be incorporated into all relevant TVET programmes. The TVET authorities will provide assistance to TVET providers to develop appropriate training packages, drawing on the magnitude of international experience in this field.

    6.3.3 TVET providers are also encouraged to consider the work environment in the local micro and small business sector when designing their training programmes. This includes, for example, the introduction and use of appropriate technologies and the organisation of internships or cooperative training programmes with micro and small enterprises. The TVET executive bodies will also undertake initiatives to strengthen and raise quality in traditional apprenticeship training, as this mode of TVET delivery is particularly effective in preparing youth for self-employment.

    6.3.4 TVET institutions shall serve as centres of technology capability, accumulation and transfer. They shall closely cooperate with the private sector in undertaking problem-solving research programmes.

    6.4.         Introducing ICT to the TVET System

    6.4.1 The introduction of modern information and communication technologies (ICT) to TVET delivery and assessment is an important tool for enhancing access and quality in TVET and for developing life-long learning opportunities. Through ICT, training, teaching and learning, as well as assessment materials, can be provided at a lower cost. It supports learner-centred TVET delivery, improves access to information and knowledge and allows for self- and self-paced learning and assessment. In accordance with the Government of Ethiopia’s Information and Communication Technology Policy of 2002, a systematic introduction and use of ICT solutions in TVET delivery will be promoted.

    6.4.2 TVET providers will be encouraged to introduce and facilitate blended learning, i.e. introducing e-learning possibilities alongside traditional training, teaching and learning methodologies. Considering current constraints with regard to accessibility of internet, e-learning/blended learning solutions using CD ROMs and local area networks will be promoted.

    6.4.3 State governments and other public TVET providers are responsible for appropriately equipping institutions and making sure that TVET teachers/instructors are able to integrate ICT in TVET delivery and to encourage and guide trainees in the use of the new learning technologies. Non-public TVET providers are encouraged to introduce e-learning and blended learning methodologies. To this end, the TVET authorities will facilitate access to software and electronic teaching and learning materials.

    6.4.4 The federal in consultation with the state TVET authorities and representatives of the ICT sector will develop an appropriate strategy for the further development of ICT and blended learning (including e-learning) in TVET addressing the issues of e-module development, development of distance education in TVET, necessary human resource development and other factors influencing the availability of ICT in the TVET sector.

    6.5.         Vocational Guidance and Counselling

    6.5.1 Increased attention will be given to vocational guidance and counselling to enable future trainees, in particular youth, to choose the right career and make full use of the initial and life-long learning opportunities provided by the TVET system. Vocational guidance has to start at pre-TVET level. Accordingly, TVET institutions will also assign and train vocational guidance staff. They will cooperate with schools for early orientation of school leavers and with NGOs, community organisations and other relevant organisations to offer guidance to other local target groups. The vocational guidance staff at TVET institutions will be instrumental in facilitating apprenticeships and preparing youth for apprenticeship training. They will also be focal points in organising self-employment support for TVET graduates.

    6.5.2 The TVET authorities will develop a concept for the introduction of appropriate vocational guidance and counselling structures within the TVET system, including a system of aptitude assessment to support personal career choices.

    7.       Building Capacities in TVET Institutions

    7.0.1 Effective, efficient and dedicated TVET providers capable of developing and delivering flexible, demand-driven, TVET programmes are the central features of the new TVET system. Capacitating such providers, both public and non-public, is therefore a core task of the TVET authorities.

    7.1.         Strengthening Public TVET Institutions

    7.1.1 The preceding years were characterised by a massive expansion of the public TVET supply which increased the provision of formal TVET to Grade 10 school leavers. The expansion, however, was undertaken without due attention to quality. The public sector will now concentrate on consolidating its TVET institutions, improving labour market orientation, relevance and quality, and widening the TVET supply to disadvantaged groups.

    7.1.2 In the regions, state level TVET authorities must ensure that:

    Ø TVET institutions are encouraged and empowered to develop close working relationships with employers and large, medium, small and micro sized companies in their catchment’s areas;

    Ø TVET programmes of TVET institutions shall be drawn up based on local skilled human resource needs and the needs of the respective Regional Governments;

    Ø Prioritization of public investment is based on established needs in the labour market;

    Ø Relevant non-formal TVET programmes will be developed as a priority, in particular with the aim of increasing TVET offers for target groups in rural areas and to provide skills upgrading for workers in the micro and small business sector;

    Ø Attention is given to all TVET institutions, especially to those which are capable to accumulate and transfer technology

    Ø Facilities are improved to ensure that TVET provision meets the National Occupational Standards;

    Ø Training, teaching and learning materials are sufficiently available;

    Ø Emphasis is given to the development and proper management of human resources within the TVET sector, which applies to both TVET trainers/instructors and TVET institution management;

    Ø Access to public TVET institutions is non-discriminatory and that facilities in public institutions will receive assistance in opening up TVET for trainees with special needs;

    Ø Equal access for female trainees is ensured;

    Ø TVET institutions contribute fully to HIV/AIDS prevention in their local environs.

    7.1.3 Public TVET provision will have to strike a balance between quality and sustainability of the existing TVET on the one hand and the desire to widen TVET supply in order to increase access at the local level on the other hand.

    7.1.4 All public investment in TVET institutions and relevant programmes will be integrated into comprehensive TVET planning at state and local levels considering both public and non-public TVET providers, so that public TVET provision will not overlap with non-public TVET initiatives.

    7.2.         Strengthening Private TVET Institutions

    7.2.1 As identified above, a partnership between public and non-public actors based on trust, cooperation and mutual recognition is a pre-requisite for the sustainable development of TVET. Among the core responsibilities of state TVET authorities, therefore, is to promote and strengthen investment in non-public TVET provision in their regions.

    7.2.2 State TVET authorities, which may delegate some of the responsibilities to lower level TVET authorities, will strengthen non-public investment in TVET through all suitable means, in particular through:

    Ø Implementing accreditation of non-public TVET institutions in a predictable and timely manner following the relevant rules and regulations;

    Ø Facilitating access to appropriate land and buildings;

    Ø Maintaining continuous consultation processes with representatives of non-public TVET providers in order to identify region specific development schemes for non-public training provision;

    Ø Harmonising the planning of public TVET provision with the non-public TVET sector in order to avoid duplication of supply and overlapping effects;

    Ø Making labour market information, occupational standards, TVET specific regulations and other relevant information and research outputs available to the non-public TVET sector;

    Ø Ensuring that capacity building initiatives for state TVET institutions (e.g. further training of teachers; management courses for TVET institutions’ management and management boards, etc.) are available to both public and non-public TVET institutions;

    Ø Ensuring that non-public providers have access to curriculum guides and training and teaching materials;

    Ø Promoting the responsible and efficient use of scarce resources of TVET institutions.

    7.2.3 Furthermore, the implementing agencies in the sector shall identify and execute means and ways of providing financial incentives for non governmental and private TVET providers.

    7.3.         Curriculum Development and Preparation of Training, Teaching and Learning Materials

    7.3.1 With the introduction of occupational standards, new outcome based curricula need accordingly be developed by the respective regions. Each TVET provider may and should develop its own curricula based on the specific needs of its target groups and in compliance with the respective occupational standard. Regional TVET authorities shall see to it and assist that the new curricula have been employed in both public and private TVET institutes operating in the region.

    7.3.2 It is acknowledged, however, that many of the existing TVET providers are not yet in a position to develop high quality curricula and TVET programmes on their own. Substantial capacity building and support (provided by the TVET system) will be necessary to enable TVET providers to transform the occupational standards into appropriate modular and outcome-based curricula. The same applies to the development of new training, teaching and learning materials. To capacitate TVET providers and to ensure that TVET programmes, curricula as well as training, teaching and learning materials are of high standards, respective manuals will be provided and the development of model curricula and of related teaching, training and learning materials be supported. Support will be made accessible to all TVET providers in Ethiopia.

    8.       Accreditation of TVET Institutions

    8.0.1 The system of accreditation of TVET institutions will be reorganized in order to establish a supportive and encouraging accreditation structure geared towards maintaining quality TVET institutions.

    8.0.2 Accreditation serves two purposes. These are:

    Ø To set quality benchmarks for TVET institutions, to identify and offer support to institutions so that they meet the required quality standards and to assess the level of achievement;

    Ø To attain transparent working systems in the TVET market, thereby protecting trainees from low quality TVET provision.

    8.0.3 Currently, accreditation is based on quality indicators defining physical and human resource assets (such as availability of classrooms, workshops, number and qualification of teachers, etc) derived from national curricula. Reflecting the new curricular flexibility in the TVET system, these quality indicators will be redefined. The new indicators for accreditation will focus on internal quality management processes in the TVET institutions, such as capacities for labour market analysis and curriculum development, personnel management and human resource development strategies and financial management. Considering good practices in other countries, the development of a graded accreditation system comprising different levels of accreditation representing different quality management achievement levels is envisaged, i.e. different capabilities of TVET institutions to responsibly develop and implement TVET programmes in accordance with the defined national occupational standards.

    8.0.4 Accreditation will be awarded to public and private institutions. These TVET institutions will be given access to support services offered by the TVET authorities. Accreditation, in this sense, will allow TVET institutions to realistically assess their own capabilities (and weaknesses), to develop targets for quality improvement and to access development support provided within the TVET system. Accreditation at a certain level can therefore be viewed as a ‘stamp of quality’ helping TVET institutions to market themselves.

    8.0.5 Accreditation will be compulsory for TVET institutions to ensure that trainees receive acceptable quality of training. In the long run, however, quality of training will be regulated mainly through occupational assessment.

    8.0.6 Accreditation will be implemented by the TVET authorities, which may delegate this function to lower level TVET authorities when such authorities have developed the necessary capacities. Accreditation by TVET authorities will be based on National Accreditation rules and procedures. Accreditation Boards will be established at the relevant levels with responsibilities for assessing and grading TVET institutions and awarding accreditation at a certain level. Accreditation Boards will be established by the TVET councils and will be comprised of technical experts from the TVET administration (TVET executive bodies), representatives from TVET institutions and other stakeholders, e.g. chambers.

    8.0.7 The Federal TVET Agency will develop accreditation rules and procedures in accordance with the principles outlined above and drawing on experiences of other countries. They will do so with the involvement of public and private providers represented by their respective associations and other stakeholders.

    8.0.8 The Federal TVET Agency, in cooperation with the state TVET authorities, will set up a register of accredited TVET institutions as part of its management information system (MIS) and will publish an annual list of accredited TVET institutions.

    9.       Human Resource Development for TVET Staff

    9.1.         Initial and Further Training of TVET Teachers and Instructors

    9.1.1 Highly competent, qualified, motivated, flexible and creative TVET teachers and instructors are the backbone of any TVET system, capable of adjusting to changing technological environments and creating conducive learning environments for different target groups. To this end, the Government of Ethiopia is in the process of fundamentally overhauling the system and provision of TVET teacher/instructor trainings. The aim of this process is to create a corps of TVET teachers/instructors capable of preparing trainees to successfully pass occupational assessment. Systematic training, education and further training will be provided for teachers and instructors in the TVET system at all levels in the formal programmes.

    9.1.2 To increase the supply with relevant training and further training, TVET teacher training at higher education institutions is currently being strengthened and new programmes are being developed. Furthermore, new TVET teacher/instructor training faculties or departments will be established at the respective Ethiopian universities.

    9.1.3 The previous qualification structure for TVET teachers will be revised and a new Bachelor qualification will be introduced. The new qualifications will be based on the professional standards of the engineering and other revised degree programmes and combined with pedagogical, methodological and didactical modules. The new Bachelor programmes will emphasise strengthening practical competences and the appreciation of practical work among TVET teachers/instructors. Frequent internships in industry during the training will be introduced. The modularization of curricula will allow for flexible entry and exit into TVET teacher/instructor trainings.

    9.1.4 Access to the TVET teaching/training profession will be open to those from various educational and professional backgrounds. Generally, people with technical competences and work experience will become the preferred target group of TVET teachers’/instructors’ training. Tailor-made preparatory and bridging courses will be offered by Higher Education Institutions to allow different target groups to meet the entry requirements for degree level TVET teacher/instructor training, notably:

    Ø  Graduates from the TVET system, preferably after some years of practical work experience, and other skilled practitioners from the world of work will be encouraged to join the TVET teachers’ and instructors’ profession. Bridging courses for academic upgrading will be offered to ensure mobility with the higher education system. Possibilities of introducing a special academic standard allowing entrance into a range of technical higher education programmes will be explored;

    Ø  Graduates from TVET programmes and skilled practitioners from the world of work must sit and pass occupational assessment as a precondition to entering TVET teachers’/instructors’ training.

    9.1.5 Emphasis will be placed upon developing systematic further education and training schemes to continuously upgrade the competences of existing TVET teachers/instructors and to facilitate life-long learning and qualification. Further training will address the entire range of necessary competences, including practical skills, occupational theory and technology, as well as pedagogical, didactical and methodological competences. Further training will generally be accessible to TVET teachers/instructors from both public and private TVET institutions.

    9.1.6 Tailor-made further training (non-degree) will be made available to TVET instructors without formal qualifications, for example instructors in Community Skills Training Centres (CSTCs), supervisors and trainers in companies, crafts(wo)men and others involved in non-formal TVET provision.

    9.1.7 In order to improve the quality of TVET teacher/instructor initial and further training, capacity building programmes for teaching and instructing staff at the TVET teacher/instructor training faculties and departments will be initiated immediately. This will include the establishment of TVET research capacities and programmes at the universities, in order to cross-fertilize teaching and research in TVET.

    9.1.8 Responsibility for TVET teacher/instructor initial and further education and training at post-secondary level rests with the higher education sector in the Ministry of Education. Appropriate oversight mechanisms will be established to ensure a close coordination between the higher education and TVET agency in the planning and implementation of TVET teacher/instructor initial and further training. The state TVET authorities, however, are responsible for liaising with higher education institutions, companies, excelling TVET institutions and other appropriate organizations to facilitate necessary further training schemes for the different TVET teacher/instructor in their respective regions.

    9.2.         Human Resource Development for TVET Management Apart from building the competence of TVET teachers/instructors, sufficient resources and efforts will be invested into human resource development activities among TVET administrative and management staff. This includes those stakeholders involved as council and board members at different levels in the governance of TVET too. Tailor-made training and/or awareness creation programmes will be drawn up. Specific target groups for such human resource development include:

    Ø Members of TVET councils at federal and state levels

    Ø Administrative staff and TVET executive bodies at federal, state, zonal and woreda levels

    Ø Facilitators of occupational standard setting and assessment item development

    Ø Assessors in the occupational assessment system

    Ø Heads of TVET institutions

    Ø Members of TVET institution Management Boards

    9.3.         Creating Conducive Work Environment for TVET Staff For a long time it has been difficult to attract high caliber and motivated professionals to work in the TVET sector, inter alia because the sector had a low reputation and work conditions were unattractive. Therefore, a precondition for the successful implementation of the TVET reform as envisaged in this strategy is to create a conducive, motivating and attractive work environment for TVET professionals. To this end, the TVET system will undertake all efforts to revise salary packages and other fringe benefits offered to TVET staff. Once TVET institutions are being granted financial autonomy in the course of decentralization, TVET institutions will be free to award salary supplements and bonuses to well-performing staff in line with transparent criteria. Appropriate motivational incentives will be awarded to those stakeholders who serve voluntarily in TVET bodies. This applies in particular to TVET Council members at the different levels, members of TVET institutions’ Management Boards and members of standard setting panels and assessment groups.

    10.   Financing of TVET

    10.0.1 To sustainably increase the quality of TVET and to upgrade the intake capacity of the sector, new funding mechanisms for TVET will be developed. In the future, the resource constraints of the TVET system will be addressed by a combination of cost saving mechanisms without compromising quality, generation of external resources into the TVET system and diversification of funding sources for TVET programmes.

    10.0.2 A major mechanism to sustainably generate additional resources is to stimulate private investment in TVET. In line with the principles already outlined in other sections of this strategy, the TVET system will encourage private investment in TVET institutions and enhanced involvement of companies in TVET. This will include drawing up financial incentives for private investment in TVET.

    10.0,3 Another mechanism to improve the resource base is cost-saving through increased efficiency in the delivery of training. Studies have shown a substantial potential for increasing efficiency in TVET institutions by modernizing management structures and procedures, granting more financial autonomy to the institutions, and increasing capacity utilization in TVET institutions, for example through flexible recruitment rules. With regard to public institutions, mechanisms of performance-based allocation of resources and stimulation of performance-based management systems will be explored.

    10.0,4 Furthermore, the TVET system will encourage and strengthen alternative, more cost-effective modes of TVET delivery, which will raise quality and signal a break from the current practice of TVET institution-based training. Comparative studies in other countries have shown that TVET programmes in which substantial parts of the practical training are delivered in real work environments tend to be less costly. Therefore, the further development of cooperative TVET schemes, notably apprenticeship programmes, will gradually help to decrease unit costs in TVET. Incentives will be offered to those companies providing in-company or cooperative TVET.

    10.0.5 In addition to these, which are related to the open and flexible nature of the TVET delivery system, the TVET system will need to diversify its financing sources and mechanisms. The system will need to generate sufficient resources for public TVET provision and for the intended reinforcement of its governance and management structures, as well as to develop necessary support services. This diversification will be approached in a way that government budgetary allocations and funds provided by foreign donors are gradually supplemented by contributions from direct beneficiaries of TVET without putting too much burden.

    10.0.6 Incentives will be developed to encourage employers to contribute to the cost of TVET through scholarships, donation of equipment, and other means.

    10.0.7 Strengthening the income-generating capacities of TVET institutions is another way to complement resources required in the TVET system. Existing income-generating activities (e.g. the sale of products produced by students, commercial activities or renting out of facilities) can still be increased by improving management and marketing skills of TVET institution and by easing regulations regarding the use of generated funds. Furthermore, the TVET authorities may devise budgetary procedures and/or incentive schemes to encourage institutions to increase their income generating effort. It must be noted that internal revenue generation shall be the main source of finance for TVET institutes and to transfer their technological development to consumers with continuity.

    10.0.8 Management Boards of TVET institutions will have to supervise, support and monitor income generating activities. This applies to the nature and implementation of activities, as well as to the use of funds. As a general rule, income generating activities should not distract TVET institutions from their core business of TVET.

    10.0.9 The TVET authorities will undertake all necessary steps to further develop and realize different financing mechanisms.

    11.   TVET Research, Monitoring and Evaluation

    11.1.     Building Research Capacities

    11.1.1 TVET development is currently hampered by a serious lack of relevant data and information about issues such as costs of TVET, labour market developments, availability and impact of existing TVET delivery schemes especially outside of the public TVET delivery system, perceptions of stakeholders, etc. Such information, however, is necessary to inform planning, monitoring and innovation in the TVET system. At the moment, TVET related research is provided mostly by international experts due to the fact that relevant capacities within Ethiopia are rather underdeveloped. In order to become self-reliant in the long run, high quality domestic TVET research capacities need to be built in Ethiopia.

    11.1.2 Research capacities will be built at the TVET authorities at federal and state levels to identify research needs, to manage research activities and to utilize research outputs and feed them back into TVET planning processes. Therefore, a research unit will be established in the federal and in the state TVET executive bodies in close coordination with other research initiatives in the Ministry of Capacity Building. The mandate of the research units includes:

    Ø Identifying, compiling and managing available information on TVET in their areas of responsibility;

    Ø Making information available to interested stakeholders, i.e. through publishing research results;

    Ø Ensuring that information is appropriately taken into consideration in all planning and monitoring processes;

    Ø Identifying research needs;

    Ø Commissioning research projects to research institutions and supervising such research.

    11.1.3 These research units will also become the anchor points of labour market monitoring for TVET and the TVET Management Information System to be established.

    11.1.4 The TVET authorities will also take initiatives to strengthen other TVET research capacities in Ethiopia, notably at those universities which are engaged in TVET teacher and instructor training and in Centres of Competence. Measures may comprise:

    Ø Liaising with the higher education sector and the concerned universities, colleges and centres about support to relevant human capacity building;

    Ø Providing funding for research projects and commissioning research contracts to Ethiopian universities and other research institutions;

    Ø Ensuring that all TVET research conducted by international experts will be used for research capacity building within Ethiopia by anchoring such research projects to relevant Ethiopian institutions and assigning Ethiopian counterparts to international experts;

    Ø Identifying research needs and priorities and developing a medium-term research plan to guide Ethiopian research institutions.

    11.2.     Labour Market Monitoring and -Forecasting

    11.2.1 The analysis of labour market information is a pre-requisite for re-orienting TVET to focus on labour market demand. Labour market information comprises information on the supply side of the labour market – i.e. demographic developments, number of school leavers at different levels, number of unemployed by region and qualification profile, etc. – and information from which the present and future demand for skills and occupational qualifications in the labour market can be derived – i.e. skill gaps, employment trends by sectors and occupations, emerging markets, new investments, economic opportunities in rural areas, etc.

    11.2.2 Substantial relevant labour market information and forecasting is already available in particular through the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, the National Statistics Agency, ReMSEDAs and others. Such labour market assessments will not be replicated within the TVET system. However, available information needs to be analysed for TVET purposes with a view to extract all information necessary for planning and monitoring in the TVET system.

    11.2.3 Analysing the labour market for TVET purposes must be a continuous process in order to trace changes in the market and subsequently changes in the skills and qualification requirements at a stage early enough to allow the TVET system to react to it, i.e. to change training plans and curricula, to review occupational standards and to develop new standards, and to build appropriate teaching capacities.

    11.2.4 The research units in the federal and state TVET agencies are therefore expected to jointly develop a pragmatic and easy to implement concept of continuous labour market monitoring for TVET purposes. This will be based upon networking with stakeholders and owners of labour market information and use the rich information base provided by tracer studies and works with low-cost tools for capturing signals for labour market trends.

    11.3.     Management Information System

    11.3.1 TVET planning also requires a solid overview of available resources such as TVET institutions and their facilities, TVET programmes delivered, technical teachers/instructors, other staff employed in the TVET system, and others and outputs such as number of trainees enrolled with the different TVET providers, TVET graduates, number of people taking and passing occupational assessment and others. Furthermore, existing occupational standards, assessment items and assessment results need to be stored in data bases. Initiatives towards generating and organising important TVET management information are currently ongoing. A consolidation of these initiatives with the aim of developing a comprehensive TVET Management Information System (TMIS) is considered a matter of priority.

    11.3.2 TMIS will use and combine information derived from different levels of the TVET management system. All users of and contributors to the TMIS will be trained to implement and use the new system.

    11.4.      Monitoring and Evaluation of TVET

    11.4.1 To monitor the progress of the TVET reform envisaged in this strategy and to identify bottlenecks at an early stage, the TVET executive bodies, together with their stakeholders, will set up a monitoring system that will:

    Ø Translate the objectives of this strategy into indicators and identify means of verification for the indicators

    Ø Ensure that indicators are aligned with other national development indicators, notably indicators defined in PASDEP

    Ø Make sure that relevant information to verify progress is generated through the TMIS

    Ø Commission base-line studies if necessary and oversee subsequent data updating.

    11.4.2 The TVET executive bodies are requested to compile monitoring results in a TVET Progress Report to be submitted and published annually.

    12.   Governance and Management of the TVET System

    12.0.1 The TVET reform envisaged here is ambitious and will require competent and dedicated leadership and a strong management at different levels. The organizational set-up of the TVET system must ensure an effective and real influence of the various stakeholders to guarantee that the system is steered with competence and drawing on the wide range of TVET expertise. Furthermore, to appropriately respond to the changing education and training requirements of the society, it needs to provide for substantial operational flexibility that allows for interaction with the different sectors, organizations and interest groups in the country.

    12.0.2 The prevailing organizational set-up – where TVET is a sub-sector of education – put substantial limitations on stakeholders influence and multi-sector responsiveness. The TVET Council was an advisory body without meaningful functions. This situation negatively affected the motivation and preparedness of public and private stakeholders to commit the necessary time and resources into the further development of TVET. Additionally, it meant that the decision-makers in TVET were not pushed to continuously reconfirm their policies and activities in light of the different interests and needs of the citizen and economy. Experience in many developing and developed countries shows that, successful TVET systems are normally governed by stakeholder bodies which approve important decisions on policy directions and quality management and supervise their implementation. Other countries, notably in Africa, include other stakeholders from TVET and society, such as TVET providers or civil society organizations. It is important to note, however, that such stakeholder bodies only function effectively if their influence is strong and undisputed.

    12.0.3 Another problematic feature of the previous situation was that TVET maintained privileged relations to the education sector, limiting its capacities to effectively interact with and incorporate the viewpoints of the other sectors it had to respond to. Education is one important stakeholder of TVET. However, the TVET system has to equally respond to capacity building needs emerging in sectors such as trade and industry, agriculture, health, labour and social affairs and others. It must also cooperate on equal terms with the business sector which is expected to play a major role in TVET, in particular in quality management (standard setting, assessment, etc) and TVET delivery. In order to promote all forms of TVET in the country equally including non-formal, informal, enterprise-based and cooperative programmes, and to respond to the ever and quickly changing requirements of the labour market, the TVET system should be organized in a way that adequately reflects multi-sector and multi-stakeholder responsiveness, and that provides for flexible interaction with a variety of public and private organizations.

    12.0.4 In the light of the considerations outlined above, a new organizational structure of the TVET system will be established with autonomous TVET authorities at federal and state levels and governed by TVET councils.

    12.0.5 The Federal TVET Agency will be set up as an autonomous organ with its own legal personality and reporting to an appropriate body. This will enable TVET to harmonize a comprehensive and integrated TVET system encompassing formal and non-formal TVET or informal learning. The Federal TVET Agency will be organized in the light of international experiences where autonomous organizations have been established to manage national TVET systems, for example, the Philippines, Jordan, South Korea, and Brazil, Tanzania, Mauritius, Botswana, Zambia and others.

    12.0.6 The Federal TVET Agency is responsible for coordinating and steering all TVET nationwide and for driving the ongoing TVET development. Specific functions and responsibilities include:

    Ø Formulate TVET policy papers and legislation;

    Ø Develop rules and procedures for occupational standard setting and approve National Occupational Standards;

    Ø Develop rules and procedures for occupational assessment, oversee its implementation, approve assessment items and instruments, and manage assessment item bank;

    Ø Develop an Ethiopian TVET Qualifications Framework (ETQF) and liaise with the Ministry of Education about the development of an overarching National Qualifications Framework;

    Ø Develop a TVET Certification system and follow up implementation of same;

    Ø Develop an accreditation system for TVET institutions and oversee the implementation of same;

    Ø Develop and oversee implementation of a quality management system for TVET;

    Ø Devise a system of labour market monitoring for TVET purposes;

    Ø Develop rules and guidelines for financing TVET;

    Ø Facilitate a conducive and stimulating environment for the further development of private TVET provision;

    Ø Devise strategies for capacity building of public and private TVET provision;

    Ø Conduct, commission and oversee all necessary research;

    Ø Conduct monitoring and evaluation of the TVET reform;

    Ø Oversee the implementation of technical teacher/instructor initial and further training and advise the Ministry of Education in all aspects related to the development and implementation of technical teachers’ training and further training;

    Ø Manage potential conflicts among the different stakeholders in the TVET system;

    Ø Assist the state TVET executive bodies in the fulfilment of their duties;

    Ø Conduct all other activities necessary to foster the further development of demand-oriented, relevant and accessible TVET.

    NOTE: The Federal TVET Agency may delegate some of its responsibilities to the state TVET executive bodies.

    12.0.7 The Federal TVET Council, which is the governing body of the Federal TVET Agency, needs to reflect the wide range of stakeholders, beneficiaries and social and economic interests in the country. It will, therefore, be comprised of all relevant public and non-public stakeholders, in particular representatives of public and private employers, the private business sector (chambers and private sector associations), public, NGO and private TVET providers, representatives of employees (trade unions), farmers, representatives of rural off-farm activities, women’s representatives, representatives of the Civil Society and NGOs, and professional associations. The federal government will be represented in the Council by the following:

    Ø Ministry of Education,

    Ø Ministry of Capacity Building,

    Ø Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs,

    Ø Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development,

    Ø Ministry of Trade and Industry,

    Ø Ministry of Health,

    Ø Ministry of Youth and Sports,

    Ø Ministry of Finance and Economic Development,

    Ø Ministry of Works & Urban Development

    Ø Ministry of Water Resources

    Ø Ministry of Women Affairs.

    Furthermore, the Federal TVET Council will include members representing state TVET executive bodies. Overall, the membership of the council will have a fair and proportional representation of both public and non-public organizations. The Chairperson and other members of the council will be appointed by the Council of Ministers.

    12.0.8 The Federal TVET Council may establish different committees as deemed necessary for the fulfilment of its functions. These committees may also include subject specialists who are not appointed members of the Federal TVET Council. The Council will be equipped with an office to facilitate its meetings and activities.

    12.0.9 The Federal TVET Agency will be the implementing organ of the Federal TVET Council and will be accountable to an appropriate body. It is in charge of preparing and implementing the decisions and guidelines of the TVET Council and serve as its secretariat. It will be responsible for rendering all necessary support to regional TVET executive bodies and to TVET providers in line with the principles stipulated in this strategy.


    Federal TVET Executive Bodies

    12.0.10 At state level similar institutional set-ups, depending on the particular situation of the states, will be established or further developed in order to oversee and implement the state functions in the TVET system. Specifically, the state TVET executive bodies will:

    Ø Formulate state TVET policy papers, legislation and prepare state TVET development plans

    Ø Ensure an appropriate coordination of the state TVET system with other state development sectors

    Ø Organise quality management in the regions, including oversight of the implementation of occupational assessment and certification

    Ø Accredit TVET providers in the region

    Ø Conduct labour market monitoring at the state levels and ensure that its results are used for state TVET planning

    Ø Develop state rules and guidelines for financing TVET

    Ø Facilitate a conducive and stimulating environment to the further development of private TVET provision in the region

    Ø Provide capacity building for TVET institutions

    Ø Plan and oversee the public TVET provision in the region

    Ø Develop state specific occupational standards

    Ø Implement occupational assessment and certification on behalf of the Federal TVET Agency

    Ø Develop appropriate strategies to involve employers into the state TVET system

    Ø Conduct, commission and oversee necessary research

    Ø Manage potential conflicts among the different stakeholders in the TVET system

    Ø Define responsibilities of TVET authorities at zonal and woreda level, and support zonal and woreda TVET authorities

    Ø Monitor the implementation of TVET at state level

    Ø Conduct all other activities necessary to foster the further development of demand-oriented, relevant and accessible TVET in the region


    12.0.11 The state TVET authorities should comprise of governing State TVET Council including all relevant TVET stakeholders in the region, and a state TVET executive body as the executive organ of the authority to be in charge of implementing day-to-day activities. Terms of References, functions, responsibilities and structure of the state TVET authorities will be defined by the state governments in accordance with the principles of this strategy and the relevant legal documents. State governments are also encouraged to develop their own State TVET Strategies to ensure that the National TVET Strategy is customized in line with specific state economic and labour market patterns.


    12.0.12 In line with the conceptual principle of decentralization, major operational responsibilities will be gradually devolved to TVET institutions. In the future, it is envisaged that public TVET institutions will be autonomous – within the framework of the federal laws for public institutions – with respect to financial management, designing and planning of TVET programmes, adjustment of curricula. This increased responsibility will require strong and powerful leadership and supervision in order to avoid misuse of public funds and institutional planning in line with local social and labour market conditions. Therefore, TVET institution Management Boards will be formed for all public TVET institutions to be comprised of the major public and private stakeholders in the institutions’ catchments area representing local businesspeople, NGOs, micro-finance enterprises, civil society, and the relevant local government authorities including agriculture, education, trade and industry (regional medium and small enterprise development agency), and others. The Management Boards will have an oversight responsibility and must approve the institution’s budgets, activity plans and annual reports, in addition to rendering comprehensive advice on all issues related to management and TVET implementation in the institutions. The management boards will be appointed by the authority of the TVET institution and will report to this authority.

    13.   Awareness Creation about TVET

    13.0.1 In Ethiopia, as in many African countries, TVET suffers from a relatively poor public image. TVET is usually associated with low status job, low salary and lack of personal development opportunities, partly due to the low quality of previous TVET programmes that did not allow TVET graduates to successfully compete in the labour market. TVET is generally perceived as a place of last resort for those students who failed to get into higher education. This misconception needs to be rectified.

    13.0.2 Therefore, TVET authorities together with their stakeholders, in particular business organisations, will invest in public awareness campaigns to make the involved stakeholders and the general public aware that the TVET system is now on its way to facilitate high quality TVET programmes and occupational qualifications based on the needs of the labour market; open to all target groups in both the urban and rural areas; and with clear opportunities for personal career advancement. Special efforts will be directed to create awareness and ownership for TVET among employers and the private business sector.

    13.0.3 Skills competitions within Ethiopia and Ethiopian participation in international skills competition events will be promoted in order to upgrade the image of TVET and enhance occupational professionalism in the country.

    14.    Managing International Cooperation

    14.0.1 The process of TVET requires the successful implementation of substantial expertise and resources. The Ethiopian Government therefore invites its cooperating partners to continue and increase their financial and technical assistance to the TVET sector. However, cooperation projects must support the demand-responsiveness of TVET and must subscribe to the objectives and principles outlined in this document.

    14.0.2 The TVET executive bodies at federal and state levels will ensure that all official bilateral and multilateral cooperation will be coordinated and that planned activities are geared towards the achievement of the objectives of this Strategy and integrated in the annual and mid-term activity plans. Appropriate mechanisms for donor cooperation will be organized to ensure coordinated approaches and to avoid duplicating or conflicting activities. Monitoring systems of cooperation projects in the TVET sector have to be aligned with the national TVET monitoring system.